The word cultivar comes from the combination of cultivar and variety, a subspecies classification that describes plant varieties produced by artificial selection.
Cultivar is an internationally recognised term that formally defines the characteristics by which certain plants can be distinguished from each other. A variety is considered a variety, and if people choose it because of certain characteristics, it becomes that variety.
This means that the traits are controlled by the homozygous genes of the variety and that these traits are always preserved in the sexual or asexual reproduction of a variety. In some cases, a plant can be fertilised to produce plants which are homogeneous in certain characteristics, but not in others. An alternative is to breed a line that is maintained through vegetative propagation, also known as cloning.
Thus, an established lineage with distinctive traits becomes a cultivation form, and many varieties can produce hybrids with other varieties of the same species because they are so closely related. This allows an almost endless variety of varieties to be produced from only a few crops. Each variety is one with a narrow genetic focus and is bred within a narrower species group.
In the United States, cultivation is more or less synonymous with diversity, but in many other countries, such as China, India, and South Africa, it is not.
The first real varieties were developed in the late 19th century, when man began to artificially select plants, and they were the first well-established cultivation lines.
These varieties survived for thousands of years and formed the basis of modern civilization. These include crops such as wheat, barley, oats, corn, soybeans, rice, cotton, sugar cane, wheat and wheat.
In this respect, well-established and genuine breeding species have always had a higher value than unknown seeds. Many organisations have been set up to certify different varieties as genuine varieties. Governments and universities have joined forces to fund and develop many more varieties, and many organizations are established in the United States and around the world to certify different varieties.
Many modern vegetables and fruits have the same seeds as tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, peppers and other fruits and vegetables. Here is a picture of wild cabbage and below are some examples of the different cabbage varieties available in the US and Europe.
Wild cabbage has been cultivated in ancient Greece for thousands of years and has spread worldwide to countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand and the United States.
Several varieties have been cultivated, mainly in the shape of the leaves, but this is not the end of the story. These varieties were then artificially selected over thousands of years, and at the end of this process dozens of varieties remained, some of which were less than the original plants.
Today there are genuine wild cabbage varieties, and whereas in the past they were single varieties, today they are known as groups, with subspecies marked by a number of different names such as wild cabbage, wild sauerkraut and wild flower cabbage.
Each line was created as a single variety with desirable characteristics, and future descendants of the plant were selected to create a new line that should be truly bred to consistently produce these characteristics.
Other varieties had enlarged leaves and roots, were bred for certain types of flowers or had modifications to improve the plant’s resistance to drought, disease and insects. A whole new generation of plants has emerged with a variety of characteristics, such as a greater variety of leaves, a more robust root system and a higher seed yield.
It is not easy to get these varieties, but they can be obtained by a number of seeds. The varieties kept in line by the seeds must be separated to prevent cross-pollination. Hybridisation – pollination and mutations in the seed can allow other genes to alter the plant’s characteristics.
The plant must have the ability to self-fertilize in order to complete the process, and it is easier to reproduce by cloning. This preserves the genetic material of the plant and its genetic diversity.
Over time, these small bundles of cells can be transplanted outwards, and small parts of the plant are harvested and established in a culture medium.
This method can be used to obtain species that are difficult to grow or cultivate without any form of cultivation. It also allows the preservation of a variety that is not homozygous for a particular characteristic.
This is simply unrealistic, because the trees grow very slowly and require a lot of space and energy. Whole fruit trees cannot be grown in a garden as they are pollinated by a variety of pests such as aphids, mites and other insects.
It is amazing what artificial selection can achieve in such a short time and what variety is created. Although the above mentioned plants may look similar, you may have noticed that potatoes and tomatoes belong to the same plant genus.
It is important to note that there are a lot of different beers on the US market, but the real diversity now lies in certain brand names and larger groups.
A variety is a large group that is a subgroup of a species and can reproduce continuously. Once established, a variety reproduces and the offspring always have the same characteristics, so it cannot be bred again.
Nomenclature and complicated relationships can get complicated, but here is a simple formula that helps you understand whether you are talking about a species, group or diversity. The full scientific name of the variety should be in this format, but not the full name or number of species or groups.
Scientific name (Group name) ‘Cultivar name’
In this case cabbage is a group of species of Brassica oleraceae, and a good example is the cabbage king Cole.
Brassica oleraceae (Capitata) ‘King Cole’
Remember that these are the same varieties that are used to make broccoli, kale and cauliflower, and the italics represent the genus and species.
Capitata, which is always in brackets, is the name of the group, and it is also the name of the plant genus, not the genus itself.
After all, each variety has its own epithet, in this case King Cole, and it is often the family name or the name of a scientist. Capitata is a cabbage variety that includes some of the largest varieties, but also a cabbage genus.