How Fast Do Mushrooms Grow? Mushroom growing have 6 steps and the division is somewhat arbitrary, every step is defined as important for the formation and production of the system.
Each step is described in detail, highlighting the prominent features of each step and a brief description of the process. Mushroom compost provides the nutrients needed to grow fungi, but is generally used in a variety of ways, with the most commonly used and least costly method being the injection of wheat straw or horse manure.
The discussion about compost preparation and mushroom production begins with the phase of compost. Composting is carried out in two stages, called Phase I and Phase II, and both composting types require injection of wheat straw or horse manure, as well as hay or corn cobs.
Phase I: 1. Making Mushroom Compost
A compost turner is required to aerate, water and transport the ingredients to the turners by tractor – loader. A concrete slab known as a quay is also required for composting and for storing the compost in a concrete container. This stage of compost accumulation takes place before the soil can be used for other purposes such as fertilizers, seedlings or even compost for the garden.
The composting phase is initiated by mixing and wetting the ingredients before stacking them in rectangular stacks with narrow sides and loose center. Most of the material is usually put into the compost turner and sprayed with horse manure or plastic compost when moving to the turners. When physically challenged, the pile is turned over while there is still a pitchfork and the pile is restacked.
Once the pile is wetted and formed, aerobic fermentation (composting) begins, caused by microorganisms that occur naturally in bulk solids. The nitrogen additive gypsum is thoroughly mixed into the turning circle and distributed in bulk materials. Heat, ammonia and carbon dioxide are released as products and the compost is turned around.
These events lead to a food source that is free of other fungi and bacteria (with the exception of other fungi or bacteria). Mushroom composting occurs when the chemical composition of the raw material is transformed by the activity of microorganisms and heat (heat, heat) and released by chemical reactions. Composting activators other than those listed above must be mixed with other organic materials such as slurry, slurry and other waste products.
During this process, sufficient moisture, oxygen, nitrogen and carbohydrates must be present, otherwise the process will stop and water and food supplements will be added periodically. Plaster increases the flocculation of certain chemicals in compost and fills pores, holes and straws. To minimize the fat deficiency that compost normally has, gypsum is added at the beginning of each composting cycle. The compost pile is ventilated by turning the hammer on the drive and ventilating with a drive.
A side effect of this phenomenon is that air can get into the stack more easily and is indispensable for the composting process. The exclusion of air leads to the formation of harmful chemical compounds in an airless, anaerobic environment. Plaster is added at the beginning of each composting cycle with 40 lbs and then with 30 lbs for each cycle.
The purpose of the supplement is to increase the nitrogen content, and it is calculated on the basis of the dry matter. Some nitrogen supplements commonly used today include nitrogen oxides such as ammonium nitrate, nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Synthetic compost requires a high amount of nitrogen and organic substances to supply the compost’s microflora.
Corn cobs are sometimes unavailable or at a price that is considered excessive. Therefore, substitutes for corn cobs include crushed hardwood bark, grass cuttings and other organic materials such as leaves, leaves of other plants and grasses.
Each compost pile containing a material is unique in terms of water requirements and the intervals between rotations. The initial compost pile should be at least 2500 square meters. Two-sided crates can be used for stacking, with risers fitted with reversible bars if no crates are required.
The sides of the pile should be firm and dense, but the center must remain loose during phase I of composting. If the material becomes too compact, air cannot move through the stack and compaction can easily occur, creating an anaerobic environment. When straw and hay become softer when composting, they become less stiff and the side stacks should be firm but dense.
When the pile is hot, move straw and hay from the cooler to a warmer area of the pile (outside or inside) and when it is cold, move it from a cooler to warmer areas on the stacks outside and inside. The process of turning and pouring the ingredients takes place in approximately two-day intervals, and during each round the ingredient can be aerated and watered.
Adding water is crucial because too much oxygen excludes the pore space and too little can limit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Water should be added early in the composting process and is usually added at the point where the pile forms a lye, but also when turning the elevator, and then little is added for the duration of composting. The last time the pile is turned or the first time after the turning maneuver, water can be applied by pressing the pile firmly with your hands or a fork when pressing it. This addition also increases the amount of water available for ventilation during the last two – and – one – half days of the turning maneuvers, depending on the temperature and the time it takes to heat compost to 145 degrees Celsius, and the size of your compost pile.
The composting phase can take 7 to 14 days, depending on the type of material and the initial characteristics of the turn. Once the entire chain is in the chain, it stops functioning when conditions are limited to one factor. This phenomenon has been observed repeatedly by biologists, who call it the law of limiting factors.
Composting produces a strong ammonia odor, which is usually complemented by a sweet, moldy odor. When ammonia is present, chemical changes in the fungus occur when food is used that is almost exclusively intended for the fungi, such as when the compost temperature is 155 degrees Celsius or higher. With the release of heat, the compost temperatures increase and the temperature of the compost reaches a desirable level of biological and chemical activity that takes place.
When the described humidity, temperature, color and odor are reached, the composting phase is completed. The compost should be brown to chocolate brown, soft and flexible like straw, and if the temperature of the compost rises to 155 degrees Celsius or higher, it should produce a strong odor.
Phase II: 2. Finishing the Compost
Phase II composting has two main objectives: pasteurization is necessary to kill fungi and other pests that may be present in the compost. This is often fatal for the growth of fungal spawning grounds and therefore needs to be removed. Secondly, the ammonia that has formed in phase I of the compost must be removed, so a person can smell ammonia as long as the concentration is between 0.10 percent. The degradation of phase II can cause many problems for the soil and the person as well as other plants, as it kills bacteria, fungi and any other pests that might be on the compost (e.g. fungi).
Depending on the type of production system used, Phase II can be divided into two phases: Phase I or Phase II. Compost and wooden trays are packed into the zone-by-zone cultivation system and stacked six to eight meters high. Each tray is stacked and placed in a special room designed to allow the mushrooms to grow for at least two to three months, and then placed in an air-conditioned Phase II room for up to six months.
Compost beds, trays and bulk materials should be filled evenly with depth, density and compaction. The compost is then placed in the beds, where there is room for the plant culture in every step.
The growth of thermophilic (heat-loving) organisms depends on the presence of useful carbohydrates and nitrogen, which act as ammonia. The compost density should allow gas exchange, in which ammonia and carbon dioxide are replaced by outside air. Controlled temperature – depending on ecological processes, it can be assumed that the compost does not ammonize organisms by using air and that composting phases I and II gradually eliminate nitrogen.
Optimal control of Phase II is difficult to define, but most commercial growers tend to use one of the two systems that are common today. The pasteurization phase is carried out by raising compost and air to at least 145 degrees Celsius for 6 hours.
This is achieved by heat generated by the growth of naturally occurring microorganisms and by injecting steam into the space in which the compost is laid out. The compost is then conditioned by lowering the temperature to 140 degrees Celsius immediately after the room is rinsed with fresh air.
Once the ammonia has drained, the compost is cooled with fresh air and the phase II lasts about 10 – 14 days.
It is important to remember the purpose of Phase II when trying to determine the right course of action in that order. Lower the compost temperature by about 2 degrees Celsius per day until all the ammonia has drained away.
One purpose is to eliminate unwanted ammonia, but the second purpose of phase II is to remove all pests present in the compost during the pasteurization sequence. This is most efficient because ammonized organisms grow well in this temperature range. At this point, you must lower your compost temperature to about 75-80 degrees before you can start spawning and planting.
The nitrogen content of your compost should be between 2.0 and 2 / 4 percent and the water content between 1.5 and 1 / 2 percent.
It is important that your compost and its temperature are uniform so that a homogeneous material is desirable. Even at the end of Phase II, it is desirable to have 5 – 7 lbs. From compost in the compost bin at a temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
The mushroom itself is a fruit plant like the tomato plant, but tomatoes contain seeds that will be used in the next season. It is thought that fungi grow on the same soil as other plants, such as soil, soil fertilizer and compost. The mushroom compost must be vaccinated against the spread of fungal spawning fungi (Latin: expander).
The fungal mycelium is a white thread – like a plant that is often found in rotten wood and moldy bread. When tomatoes come from the roots, stems and leaves of the plant, the fungus forms filamentous cells. Microscopically small spores, but their small size prevents them from being treated as seeds.
The vegetatively propagated mycelium is known as spawn, and commercial mushroom growers buy spawn from dozens of spawning companies. In order to multiply the mycelium, special devices are necessary to prevent it from mixing with other fungi. It reproduces by separating daffodil bulbs and bringing more of them to the plant.
Once the production process is started, wheat, millet and other small grains can be replaced by rye, and the spawning family will begin to spawn. In the 1940s, sterilized horse manure, which was formed into blocks, was used as a growth medium for spawning, but today such spawning is rare. It is called block spawning or slurry spawning and is used in the USA and Canada as well as in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America.
Once the cereal is colonized with mycelium, the product is called spawning product, and it is produced in advance so that the farmer can spawn. The spawning is cooled and the grains and mycelium shaken to add to the sterilized grains.
In the United States, mushroom growers have eight different isolates of white – white, black, brown, red, yellow, green, orange, blue, purple, and white strains. These are the eight smooth white varieties that breeders can choose from.
These isolate differ in taste, texture and cultural requirements, but they are all mushrooms and can be eaten as fresh mushrooms. The white-white varieties are generally used for processed foods such as soups and sauces. They are best eaten fresh as mushrooms, but can also be mixed with other types of mushrooms to be used in sauces and other foods.
This is done by sprinkling the spawn on the surface of the compost and sprinkling it with a small rake or tool. In recent years, however, special spawning machines have been used to mix compost with the tines of the little finger – like tools and in a spawning bed system to mix compost. The spawn is then thoroughly mixed with compost, distributed on top of it and added to the spawn while it is moved over a conveyor belt and falls into trays.
A spawning speed of 2 is desirable, 1 unit per 10 feet is desired, and spawning speed is expressed as the ratio of compost weight to the number of spawning units per square meter. This rate can be expressed by comparing the amount of composting weight per unit of space in a compost bed with the spawning rate. A spawning speed of 1.5 to 2.2 units per square meter expresses the spawning speed, while a spawning speed of 1 unit per square meter is at a spawning rate of 3.0 to 4.1 units per square meter.
In a spawning bed of compost, biological units of mycelium consist of various spawning grains. Under these conditions, the spawning family grows and forms filaments (a mycelium network) in the compost and grows in all directions around the spawning grain. Relative humidity must be kept high to minimize the drying out of a compost surface during spawning. The compost temperature must also be maintained during compost processing to level the surface so that the fungal disease grows in both directions.
The spawning grains appear in the compost bed at a speed of about 1.5 to 2 millimeters per day.
The time required for the colonization of the compost depends on the temperature of the soil and the amount of heat generated during the spawning process. At temperatures of 74 degrees Celsius, spawning growth slows down to about 1.5 to 2 millimeters per day (depending on the variety). When temperatures rise to 80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit (or higher, depending on the variety), the heat can damage or kill the mycelium and completely eradicate it. The time interval between spawning and harvesting can be extended by adding a compost bed with a higher compost temperature, such as 80 degrees.
Once the compost has fully grown after spawning, the next step in production is imminent. The complete spawning process normally takes 14 to 21 days, but can be delayed by up to 10 days.
The intestine is the lid or dressing applied to the spawning compost, where the fungi eventually form. The shell needs nutrients to serve as a water reservoir and as a place for rhizomorphosis and rhizomorphosis. Like clay itself, trays can be used through spent or weathered compost or in loam-to-loam compost.
The fungi “original needle forms their rhizomorphosis, which forms the base of the shell, the outermost layer of soil and the innermost layers of water. The rhzomorph looks like a thick string, but in reality it is just a piece of wood or woody material, not a string.
It is also important to distribute the cover so that the depth is evenly distributed over the surface of the compost. This uniformity allows the spawners to move through the enclosure at the same speed and ultimately all develop and develop at the same time. The shells are pasteurized to eliminate insects or pathogens that carry them, as well as the water.
The cover must be able to absorb moisture, as moisture is essential for the development of solid fungi. The relative humidity should be high and the compost temperature should be maintained to control the harvest and intestines.
Knowing when, how and how much water to put into the gut is an art form that easily separates experienced growers from beginners. Water must be applied throughout the period following coating to increase the moisture content to field capacity before fungal needles form. Lower the compost temperature by about 2 degrees daily until small mushrooms form – first needles.
As soon as a rhizomorphosis has formed in the intestine, a fungal infection develops first and the initial outgrowth from the rootstock can be seen. The initial size is extremely small, but once it has quadrupled, the structure resembles a needle.
The needle expands further and becomes larger, like a button or a step, and eventually the button grows into a mushroom. The fungus is harvested between 18 and 21 days after ingestion, and the needle expands and becomes larger.
The needle is formed when the carbon dioxide content of the room air (depending on the type) is reduced to 0.08 percent or less by the supply of fresh air. Outdoor air has a higher concentration of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide and methane.
The timing of the fresh air supply is very important and can only be learned from experience. If the carbon dioxide is lowered too early by early ventilation, the mycelium in the intestine stops growing. Generally, it is best to ventilate as little as possible before the fungal initials appear on the surface of a case, and stop the water when the initial needle is formed. This causes the fungi to form on a surface outside the intestine, but not inside.
Too little moisture can also lead to fungi forming on the surface of the jacket, which press against the shell as it grows. Pinning is a significant step in the production cycle and influences the potential yield and quality of a crop.
There are a few days when mushrooms are available for picking, but there are no terms like flush, break or flower. Most mushroom growers harvest at least once a week, although some harvests can last up to 150 days. The cycle repeats rhythmically and the harvest continues as the mushrooms continue to ripen.
It may seem that there are no pests that can harm fungi, but fungal pests can cause total crop failure. The critical factor for harvesting time is often infestation with P. The air temperature during harvest should be maintained in order to achieve the best results. Cool temperatures can extend the life cycle of pathogens and insect pests and cause harvests to grow more slowly, which can cause other organisms to compete with each other and promote fungal growth and damage plants.
Pathogens and insects can be controlled through cultural practices related to the use of pesticides. It is highly desirable to exclude these organisms from cultivation areas at the early stages of their life cycle.
In commercial practice, this means watering 2-3 times a week and supplying the intestine with water so that water stress does not hinder the development of the fungi. The relative humidity of the growth chamber should be high enough to minimize drying of the envelopes and low enough to keep the surface of the developing fungi sticky.
A sealed cover prevents the essential gas exchange for the formation of mushroom needles. Most growers who apply too much water to the surface of the envelope see a loss of texture on the surfaces of their enclosure. Irrigation can be more or less gallons, depending on the type and size of the garden.
If you realize that 90 percent of a mushroom is water and a gallon of water weighs 8.3 lbs, you can estimate how much water needs to be added during the first break. When harvesting 100 kg of mushrooms, 90 kg of water is removed from the intestine, so that there is a significant amount of water in the intestine and the rest of its content, which must be replaced when the fungi develop.
During harvest time, outdoor air is used to control air temperature and compost temperature, but it also displaces the carbon dioxide released by the growing fungi. The amount of fresh air also depends on the size of the growing mycelium, the surface area produced and the supply zone. Since more growth occurs early in the harvest, more fresh air is needed, so the more mycelium grows, the less water is produced and more carbon dioxide is produced.
It seems that experience is a good guide to the amount of air needed, but for each volume 50 to 100 percent must be absorbed into the air. This is the case if the compost is 8 inches deep and there is at least 1.5 inches of surface area per square inch of compost, or about 1 / 4 inch deep.
A growing room can be illuminated to facilitate harvesting and cultivation, but it is more common for workers to equip miner lamps instead of lighting the entire room. Fungi do not need light to grow, only green plants need it for photosynthesis. The need to light the fungus that grows often results from the lack of light in the room and the need to ventilate and air the soil.
V-ventilation is essential for mushroom cultivation, but it is also necessary to control humidity and temperature. The temperature control of a fungus or room is no different from the temperature control in a house. Moisture enters the air by wetting walls and floors. Therefore, moisture must be removed from the growth area by first letting in a large volume of outside air, second introducing dry air, and third, bringing the same amount of outside air into the room and heating it to a higher temperature, thereby lowering the relative humidity of warmer air.
The heat can come from hot water circulating through pipes or walls, or from hot compressed air blown through ventilation ducts, which is more common in newer fungal farms.
Caves of this kind are not necessarily suitable for mushroom cultivation; they are only grown in caves with composted soil and walkways. There are some limestone caves where the rock acts as a heating or cooling surface depending on the season. Abandoned coal mines have the potential to be a suitable site for a mushroom farm, but only if they have been reallocated for other purposes.
When ripe mushrooms are collected, inhibitors for the development of the fungus are removed and the fungus is harvested in a 7-10 day cycle, which can be long or short depending on temperature, humidity, variety and harvest time. Consumers in North America want solid, closed mushrooms, while in England and Australia, flat mushrooms are in demand outdoors. Mushrooms are picked at a time when the veil does not reach too far, as in the first weeks of spring.
The process of collecting and packaging often differs from plant to plant, and the maturity of the fungus is measured by the extent of the veil and the size of the fungi. Ripe mushrooms can be both large and small, with medium and large mushrooms being preferred by farmers and consumers alike.
The final pasteurization is designed to eliminate all pests that might be present in the harvesting wood or in the growing area, thus minimizing the likelihood of infestation for the next harvest. Freshly harvested mushrooms must be cooled at 35-45 degrees and the cultivation areas are locked in a steam pasteurized room until the last mushroom rinse is done.
The final yield depends on how well the breeder monitors and controls temperature, humidity, pests and so on. It takes about 15 weeks to complete a complete production cycle from start-up to compost, final evaporation and harvesting. During the work, mushroom growers can count the weight of each mushroom in a single day, from the beginning of the harvest cycle to the end.
Overall, this seems to be the most important factor for good production, and the production system used for growing the plants can be selected if one understands the basics of mushroom cultivation.